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post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 02:56 AM
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In Reply To: royco's post @ Mar 14 2020, 02:45 AM

Do you mean Galdarma cancelled its melanocortin research because they were afraid of a rocky approval route?

post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 02:55 AM
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But we don't have coming weeks or months to move on this, why not try?

α-MSH to be used not only as an anti-infective. How these respiratory viruses kill are by cytokine storm , AKA INFLAMMATION.
What do we know about afamelanotide? YES!


Human Antimicrobial Peptides as Therapeutics for Viral Infections
28 May 2019; Accepted: 30 July 2019; Published: 1 August 2019

Abstract: Successful in vivo infection following pathogen entry requires the evasion and subversion
of multiple immunological barriers. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the first immune
pathways upregulated during infection by multiple pathogens, in multiple organs in vivo. In humans,
there are many classes of AMPs exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities, with defensins and the
human cathelicidin LL-37 being the best studied examples. Whereas historically the efficacy and
therapeutic potential of AMPs against bacterial infection has been the primary focus of research, recent
studies have begun to elucidate the antiviral properties of AMPs as well as their role in regulation of
inflammation and chemoattraction. AMPs as therapeutic tools seem especially promising against
emerging infectious viral pathogens for which no approved vaccines or treatments are currently
available, such as dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). In this review, we summarize
recent studies elucidating the efficacy and diverse mechanisms of action of various classes of AMPs
against multiple viral pathogens, as well as the potential use of human AMPs in novel antiviral
therapeutic strategies.

8. Antimicrobial Neuropeptides
8.1. Expression
Neuropeptides (NPs) are low molecular weight, cationic, amphipathic AMPs. Traditionally NPs are
thought to transmit and modulate signals in central and peripheral nervous systems. However, in recent
years, NPs have demonstrated antimicrobial activities [142,143]. The NP, α-melanocyte-stimulating
hormone (α-MSH) exhibits both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity (Table 1). α-MSH is a
13-amino acid peptide that is a product of posttranslational processing of the precursor molecule
pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) [144]. α-MSH is widely expressed in peripheral brain tissue and
by numerous cells including monocytes, dendritic cells, melanocytes, pituitary cells as well as T
lymphocytes [142,144]. The active component of α-MSH resides in the C-terminal tripeptide (11-13,
KPV) [144].

10. Conclusions
Progress has been made in the last decade to elucidate the mechanisms of action of various
AMPs. The primary mechanism of AMP-mediated antiviral activity has been attributed to direct
interference with, and destabilization of, viral envelopes. However, AMPs have also demonstrated
selective immune modulation. Antiviral activity against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses
has been reported with the latter hinting at the presence of undiscovered activities of AMPs, in addition
to the known direct interaction with viral envelopes. Indeed, antiviral activity has also been reported at
post entry steps affecting later stages in the viral life cycle, such as genome replication and viral protein
trafficking. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that AMP treatment prior to viral infection results
in peptide retention and internalization by cells which may reflect a more robust response to viruses
compared to other potential therapeutics in development. Additionally, post-infection treatments
have been reported to exhibit antiviral activity; however, to a lesser extent to that of treatments prior
to infection. Nonetheless, these treatments play a role in altering viral replication and assembly as
well as a role in accelerating immune activation or suppression. Hence, AMPs can directly impact
viral infections or can modulate host processes that ultimately impact viral replication negatively.
AMPs have been reported to drive interferon β (IFNβ) signaling, contributing to the induction of an
antiviral state in susceptible cells. This dual functionality of AMPs is advantageous as they can be
used as a prophylactic and/or as part of post-exposure antiviral measures. In vulnerable individuals,
prophylactic expression of AMPs has the potential to become a preventative strategy against viral
infections, especially during emerging pandemics. In addition, the simplicity of AMPs makes the
development of synthetic peptide analogues a cost-effective measure to treat established viral infections
Viruses 2019, 11, 704 18 of 26
AMPs and their synthetic derivatives are a promising avenue to yield new strategies to control and treat
a wide range of viral diseases but their application is still at the preliminary stages. Therefore, further
research is warranted to understand AMP antiviral activity both in vivo and in vitro and to determine
underlying mechanisms involved in AMP-mediated immune modulation for clinical applications.

Said 'Thanks' for this post: Johnny H  sharelooker  Kalaz  endymion96  
post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 02:45 AM
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In Reply To: sharelooker's post @ Mar 14 2020, 02:36 AM

You wonder why clinuvel had to exile afamelanotide development to Singapore "vallaurix" just weeks before ema could "untangle" the dossier and approve.

post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 02:36 AM
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In Reply To: investek's post @ Mar 14 2020, 12:20 AM

Good find! They also filed a patent for the treatment of XP with melanocortins that was cited by PW. I'm wondering why Galdarma didn't pursue its work in this field?! Maybe a management decision?


post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 01:18 AM
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In Reply To: arjan1972's post @ Mar 13 2020, 04:43 AM

I am feeling fine although i lost 50 %, temporary, like most of the longterm holders.

However i don’t agree with you about the letter of mr. Blijdorp. I think there ‘s nothing
In it that we already knew. What’s left are a few faithfull words. Willem writes like a father who
Is talking to a fearfull kid during a nightmare. For me it’s of no value, i think he should communicate
with his shareholders in a more adult professional way.

Like you said it yourself : Clinuvel’s marketing and communication policy is poor and lackable. What is Willem
Blijdorp doing ? Only pointing his finger at the shorters, a fraudulent employee and corona.

Said 'Thanks' for this post: odi01  
post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 01:00 AM
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still cannot grasp why no word is said in the media and by the medical word about existing medication that could help the healing process with covid19 or the flu.
not even a test...nada


Featured Stock Stories

post Posted: Mar 14 2020, 12:20 AM
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Galderma Goes It Alone as Nestlé Sale is Closed
Galderma, which owns Cetaphil in the consumer skin care market, will keep its headquarters in Switzerland.
The $10.2 billion acquisition deal, first announced in May 2019, was led by a consortium comprising the EQT VIII fund, Luxinva (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Abu Dhabi Investment Authority), PSP Investments and other institutional investors.

Also I didn’t realise that Galderma had a US patent granted for Melanocortin receptor modulators, process for preparing them and use thereof in human medicine and cosmetics expiration 2030!

Interesting that Vallauris (the city not the company) gets a mention in the patent...

Attached thumbnail(s)
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Said 'Thanks' for this post: royco  Johnny H  odi01  sharelooker  
post Posted: Mar 13 2020, 05:20 PM
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In Reply To: xray's post @ Mar 13 2020, 03:12 PM

Omg I just released where I’ve seen your avatar. I’m a huge Nick Veasey fan. Great stuff

Said 'Thanks' for this post: xray  
Dr Wally
post Posted: Mar 13 2020, 03:12 PM
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In Reply To: working's post @ Mar 13 2020, 03:03 PM

""I'll be happy to go through rush or pay a fee if required. Let me know. ""

No need Working. You passed the ShareCafe CUV test by letting us know that you've held for years. That's a big fat brown tick for you working.

Its really good to know were all Working towards to same goal here.

Sorry I didn't mean to doubt you my CUV brother or is it CUV sister?? wub.gif

You can call me DW if you like?.

Wishing everyone the best of luck through these testing times. Hopefully we’ll all be getting back on track towards the end of this incredible year 2020.

Understand the reality of this unprecedented situation but don’t panic.

2020. Year of the germ!
post Posted: Mar 13 2020, 03:12 PM
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In Reply To: working's post @ Mar 13 2020, 03:03 PM

How long have you been working for Clinuvel Mr(s) Working?
The internet is not as anonymous as you think it is.
Say hi to the Walnut from me.

Said 'Thanks' for this post: working  oystercatcher  

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