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Vanadium small caps are rocketing. Here's what you need to know

The price of vanadium has rocketed 550 per cent in the past three years, outpacing other commodities, and investors want a piece of the pie. King River Copper (ASX: KRC), which has a vanadium and titanium landholding in Western Australia, has witnessed its share price rocket 1900 per cent in the past year. Golden Deeps (ASX:GED) is up 200 per cent and Australian Vanadium (ASX:AVL) has gained 153 per cent.

 

About 90 per cent of global vanadium production is used to make high-strength steel, but future demand stems from its role in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs), which can store more power and discharge it over a much longer period than lithium-ion batteries.

 

Protean Energy (ASX:POW) chairman Bevan Tarratt told Stockhead that the main drivers of vanadium demand was China's shift away from polluting, lower-grade steel to a higher-grade product and blue sky" on the battery storage front. "You've got a physical demand at the moment out of China and then a future demand out of that battery side," he said. "I think the deficit that sits there at the moment is only going to get greater."

 

Expert view: vanadium, tungsten and graphene lead second-boom tech metals

 

Protean Energy is advancing its vanadium project in South Korea and aims to eventually supply the domestic market. South Korea is one of the largest steel producers globally and the country is also looking to establish itself as a major player in the VRB space, with heavyweights Samsung and LG looking to break into the market.

 

Technology Metals Australia (ASX:TMT) executive director Ian Prentice told Stockhead that vanadium redox flow batteries would be the big driver of demand over the next two to five years. "You've got a couple of really large batteries being built at the moment in China," he said. "Rongke Power in Dalian province is building ultimately what's going to be a 200MW/800MWh battery, which is going to need something like 7000 tonnes of vanadium pentoxide. "Largo, which is producing out of Brazil ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ their nameplate is about 10,000 tonnes per annum. So that one large battery is going to use something like 70 per cent of their annual production."

 

Vanadium-outperform-other-metals.jpg

 

The vanadium price over the past three years has outperformed other commodities including battery metals lithium and cobalt.The outlook for vanadium has seen investors scramble to gain exposure to the metal.

 

Eleven of 16 ASX-listed vanadium players tracked by Stockhead (see link https://stockhead.com.au/resources/vanadium...lies-investors/ ) have made gains in the past 12 months.

 

"We've had a number of funds phone us and say they want exposure to the vanadium market, but there's just a complete lack of ASX-listed companies with vanadium," Mr Tarratt said. "So that's partly why there's been a run in things like Technology Metals Australia and King River Copper."

 

Rumble Resources (ASX:RTR) has climbed 108 per cent, while Technology Metals Australia is up 52 per cent.

 

Technology Metals, which is focused on its Gabanintha vanadium project in Western Australia, recently received firm commitments to raise $3 million via a placement that was oversubscribed.

 

"We listed in December 2016 and into a market where there wasn't a very high level of awareness of what vanadium was at all," Mr Prentice said. "There was a bit of a trickle of interest coming in about middle of last year and then I guess the wave has come along since Christmas into this early part of the new year. "I think it's just an increased awareness and understanding that this is most likely going to be the next battery metal that has a significant run ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâ€Â¦ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬Å“ the price has already gone up more than 400 per cent since we listed."

 

Although Mount Burgess Mining (ASX:MTB) is down 22 per cent over the year, the company's share price doubled on Friday after it told investors it had uncovered shallow vanadium at its Kihabe deposit in Botswana, where it has been looking for zinc, lead and silver.

 

"What they're looking at right now for instance is combining [VRBs] with solar," chairman and managing director Nigel Forrester told Stockhead. "There hasn't really been any good way of storing that solar power. So you can generate that power during the daylight hours, but at night time there's nothing you can do with it. "So the whole association of solar, these batteries and just the fact they can store huge amounts of power for huge periods of time, which is something that is going to impact ultimately on controlling carbon emissions so we've got to look at it."

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Vanadium batteries need Elon Musk moment to kick-start market

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Bloomberg) ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ Vanadium needs Elon Musk or another big player in the global battery market to get behind the metal in order to share center stage with other energy-storage components such as lithium and cobalt.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“When we get that moment, weÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢re off to the races,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ Vincent Algar, managing director of Australian Vanadium Ltd., said in an interview at a mining conference in Hong Kong. The industry needs a Tesla Inc. or Panasonic Corp. to say ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“we like vanadium-flow batteries and we want to make them in addition to lithium-ion batteries,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ he said.

 

The worldÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s biggest lithium-ion battery was installed in record time in Australia last year after billionaire Musk successfully bet he could help solve an energy crisis in the Pacific nation by deploying his Tesla technology to plug a supply gap

 

read more - http://www.mining.com/web/vanadium-batteri...k-start-market/

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Growing panes: will smart glass stimulate mineral demand?

By CAMERON PERKS

Published: Friday, 25 May 2018

extract

Raw materials supplies

 

So how will these trends affect raw material supplies? Since the innovation in smart glass is in the thin metal-oxide layer within the glass, it might be logical to conclude that the demand for some metals is likely to rise. And while some of the technology being used in todayÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s products is proprietary, we know that oxides of tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, indium and titanium can be electrically stimulated to increase their light-absorption properties.

 

In the case of vanadium, RMITÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s announced technological breakthrough caught the eye of Vanadium Corp, a vanadium processing technology and exploration company, which reintroduced the work to the Toronto Stock Exchange. "Smart windows and energy storage are examples of the glaring need to address the global short supply of vanadium, [which is] only possible with more efficient and sustainable methods of production," the companyÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s chief executive officer, Adriaan Bakker, said.

 

European prices for vanadium pentoxide were $14.90-15.50 per lb in-warehouse Rotterdam on Friday April 20, according to Metal BulletinÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s assessment, down from $15.50-16.00 per lb one week before.

 

While BakkerÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s conclusion may be logical, it may also be important to remember that the metal oxide layer used in smart glass is extremely thin. In the case of RMITÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s glass, the coating is 50-150 nanometers in thickness, which is thinner than a human hair.

 

But since 90% of all manufactured glass is comprised of silica, sodium carbonate (soda ash) and calcium carbonate (limestone), building retrofits and the increasing trend toward using glass in new buildings may mean that the growth in demand for these materials will continue.

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How a global hunt for vanadium may increase titanium supply

By CAMERON PERKS

Published: Thursday, 31 May 2018

 

Several mineral exploration companies are searching for vanadium amidst high demand and high prices for the material, so what will a future increase in vanadium production do for the titanium market?

 

What do mineral exploration companies Chalice Gold Mines, King River Copper, Technology Metals Australia, Vanadium Corp, Australian Vanadium, Six Sigma Metals, Tando Resources, TNG Ltd as well as lithium-miner Neometals all have in common? All of these companies are searching for vanadium, a now sought-after mineral used in vanadium redox batteries (VRBs)

.

 

These companies are flying under the radar in terms of titanium, due to their battery-industry focus. Of these companies, the most advanced projects are held by Australia Securities Exchange (ASX)-listed companies Neometals Ltd and TNG Ltd.

On May 8, Neometals, an established lithium producer, reported that its Western Australia-located titanium-vanadium Barrambie direct shipping ore (DSO) project was the subject of bulk-sampling and test work.

 

The companyÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s titanium feedstock has been confirmed to be suitable for high-purity (>99%) titanium dioxide production, and can be precipitated selectively from a leach solution at recoveries greater than 90%. Barrambie's Eastern Band made a total mineral resource for Barrambie is estimated to be 280.1 million tonnes at 9.18% titanium dioxide and 0.44% vanadium pentoxide.

 

Elsewhere, TNGÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Australian Northern Territory Mount Peake Vanadium-Titanium Iron Project was awarded federal environmental approval on May 15 of this year. The project, which contains 160 million tonnes of 5.31% titanium dioxide and 0.28% vanadium pentoxide as part of its resource (as of 2013), will now need a mine management plan in order to proceed to a stage where offtake, funding and construction may proceed.

 

A long list of early to mid-stage explorers also exist, and while they are a long way from production, present another potential source of titanium in the long term.

 

ASX-listed explorer Tando Resources commenced exploration on May 21 on its South African high-grade vanadium project, after acquiring it from Vanadium Resources Ltd on March 22.

 

The companyÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s preliminary estimates on a concentrate indicate grades of 2% vanadium pentoxide and 13% titanium dioxide.

 

Likewise, ASX-listed explorer Chalice Gold Mines announced on May 23 that it had applied for a number of vanadium focused exploration licenses in Queensland and Western Australia. The company notes that the areas are "highly prospective" for nickel, copper platinum group elements and titanium.

 

Another Australia-based ASX-listed explorer, Six Sigma Metals, has recently agreed to acquire "highly prospective" vanadium-titanium and lithium assets located in Zimbabwe from Mirrorplex Ltd. The announcement, made on May 17, said that the acquisition was part of a strategy to "capitalize on the rising interest in the sector due to recent global [battery] technology advances". This company has likened its geology to that of ASX-listed Australian VanadiumÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Western Australian Gabanintha deposit, as well as ASX-listed King River CopperÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Western Australian Speerwah deposit.

 

Of these, King River Copper has conducted advanced metallurgical test work which has resulted in high purity titanium dioxide and vanadium pentoxide products. Australian Vanadium has also carried out test work on their project, resulting in the production of a combined concentrate yielding around 15% titanium dioxide.

 

In late February, ASX-listed Technology Metals Australia reported that it had recovered up to 97.8% vanadium in magnetic concentrates during metallurgical test work. While initial results focused on vanadium, early success may pave the way to future titanium production at this deposit, which contains 9.7% titanium dioxide.

 

Despite these companies focused on vanadium production, the potential volume of titanium dioxide that could be supplied into pigment markets is substantial.

 

Industrial Minerals reported prices for titanium dioxide pigment, high quality, bulk volume, cfr Asia, on May 24 at $2,800-3,100 per tonne, unchanged from the previous week. The price had been assessed at $2,720-3,100 per tonne a year earlier.

 

Titanium dioxide prices have been rising since early 2017 due to increased demand driven by the global economic recovery and the reduction in output due to environmental inspections in China, Industrial Minerals reported earlier in May.

 

While this may be the case, it remains to be seen as to whether vanadium-driven titanium dioxide production can provide any pricing relief.

http://www.indmin.com/Article/3810762/How-...ium-supply.html

 

 

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Lots of ASX companies jumping on the vanadium bandwagon - next bubble?

4 Top Vanadium-mining Countries

On the supply side, world vanadium production totaled 80,000 MT last year, up slightly from 79,000 MT in 2016, as per the most recent data from the US Geological Survey. Only four countries contributed to that output, and below is a brief overview of all of those producers.

 

1. China

Mine production: 43,000 MT

 

China was the worldÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s top vanadium producer in 2017 with output of 43,000 MT. ThatÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s down from the 45,000 MT it put out the previous year.

 

The Asian nation far outpaces all other countries in terms of vanadium-mining output, and is also a large consumer of the metal. As mentioned, vanadium is largely used in the production of steel. Although Chinese steel output has declined in recent years, the country remains a major vanadium consumer.

 

2. Russia

Mine production: 16,000 MT

 

Second on the list is Russia, whose vanadium-mining output totaled 16,000 MT in 2017, the same as its 2016 output. RussiaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s vanadium reserves are the second largest in the world at 5,000 MT. EVRAZ KGOK (LSE:EVRAZ) is a major mining company in Russia that produces vanadium.

 

Little other information is available about vanadium mining in Russia.

 

3. South Africa

Mine production: 13,000 MT

 

Vanadium-mining output in South Africa has been on a upward trend in recent years. In 2017, the country put out 13,000 MT of the metal, up from 10,000 MT in 2016. The countryÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Evraz Highveld vanadium and iron mine shut down in 2015, but vanadium-mining production has since recovered.

 

Bushveld MineralsÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ (LSE:BMN) vanadium-mining division is comprised of three assets in South AfricaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Bushveld Complex. The company says that together they have a JORC resource base of 439.6 million tonnes, including 55 million tonnes of JORC reserves, with ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“some of the highest primary grades in the world.ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂ

 

4. Brazil

Mine production: 8,400 MT

 

Last is Brazil, whose vanadium-mining output ramped up to 8,400 MT in 2017 from 8,000 MT in 2016.

 

BrazilÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s production increase is largely thanks to Largo Resources (TSX:LGO), which describes itself as the only pure-play vanadium producer. The companyÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Maracas Menchen mine is the highest-grade vanadium mine in the world, and achieved record quarterly production in Q4 2017, reaching 2,539 tonnes of vanadium pentoxide. Its guidance for 2018 is 9,150 to 10,150 tonnes of vanadium pentoxide.

https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-in...cing-countries/

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Lots of ASX companies jumping on the vanadium bandwagon - next bubble?

 

One of the more "balanced" articles on vanadium from Katusa Research - The Hottest Metal In The World Right Now

https://www.fnarena.com/index.php/2018/11/0...orld-right-now/

extract

IÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ve seen this type of small sector hype many times before. And so have you with lithium and cobalt.

 

Like those two niche metals, many ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“vanadiumÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ stocks have spiked in price, returning doubles and triples in a short time. And some have even become 5 baggers in the month of October alone. Those kinds of gains are enough to hit everyoneÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s radar screens. Traders, investors and ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“me-tooÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ companies alike will start piling on the momentum train.

Dirty Secrets in the Vanadium Sector

 

 

Just because the vanadium sector is small, doesnÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t mean that vanadium is rare.

 

Vanadium is actually fairly common, and can be found as a secondary metal in many types of deposits.

 

Most of these secondary deposits contain low grade vanadium mineralization. But at current vanadium prices, those marginal deposits become economic. Which opens up a plethora of new potential supply. This is very similar to the crappy/low grade copper and nickel projects which magically turned into cobalt projects last year.

 

You will see many crappy uranium projects now be touted as vanadium stories. ItÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s neither cheap nor easy to produce a radioactive material. Buyer beware.[/b]

 

The second dirty secret is that there is actually a sizable amount of production capacity which is currently offline.

 

Total production capacity in the vanadium market is around 150-160 thousand tonnes per year. But right now, production is only around 95,000 tonnes.

 

A large amount of vanadium is produced through Chinese co-production facilities, which produce both steel and vanadium. Some of these facilities are currently shutdown or operating at lower capacity rates.

 

ItÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s no secret China has a huge pollution problem. To curb some of these effects the government has forced the closure of several large steel and vanadium facilities.

 

KatusaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Vanadium Outlook and Play

 

I believe that both steel and battery manufacturers will want to secure a long-term supply of low cost, metallurgically recoverable (metallurgy that actually works) vanadium production in a non-AK47 nation that is friendly to mining.

 

I do like commodities that donÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t just depend on continued growth in China.

 

Vanadium has the benefit of growth demand from China. But the reality is, 30-40% of global vanadium demand is directly correlated to the Chinese rebar market. If Chinese rebar demand slows down or contracts, vanadium prices will pull back significantly.

 

In these niche markets itÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s important to not get too over exposed.

 

Be careful and invest only with speculative capital that you can truly afford to lose 100% of.

 

IÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ve been looking for years for the right vanadium project. I have a database of every single deposit globally.

 

Do not invest in any projects that are using anywhere near current spot prices in their economics. I specifically asked a large producer of vanadium if he could get an off take at $25 per pound, while vanadium was $32 per pound and he couldnÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t lock in a hedge or off-take.

 

So, if you are going to play a niche market like vanadium, make sure you are using say $15 per pound not the current $30+ per pound spot price.

 

Also, make sure you invest with a management team that not only understands the niche metal markets, but have direct success in the niche markets. Just because you know how to finance or build a mine, doesnÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t mean you understand the complexities of the niche markets.

 

Niche markets are very different than the large commodities such as copper or gold.

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  • 4 weeks later...

Vanadium's electric future hobbled by its industrial past

Reuters |

LONDON ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâ€Â¦ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬Å“ Last year it was cobalt. The year before that it was lithium.

 

This year it is vanadium, another esoteric element of the periodic table that is on a wild bull rampage.

 

Vanadium prices in China have more than tripled over the course of 2018, albeit with some recent softening from their early-November peaks.

 

The share price of South Africa's Bushveld Minerals , one of only a handful of primary producers, has soared from less than 10 pence per share at the start of the year to 42 pence currently.

 

Vanadium is the latest exotic metal to feel the new energy heat. The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a breakthrough technology in energy storage, a fast-growing component of the infrastructure needed to accommodate the global shift to renewable energy.

 

Vanadium's problem, however, is that there is already a structural shortage of the stuff rooted in its historical co-dependence on the steel sector.

 

Supply scarcity and the resulting price volatility are the two biggest hurdles to vanadium's potential bright electric future.

read more - http://www.mining.com/web/vanadiums-electr...ndustrial-past/

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  • 9 months later...

Vanadium: AMG signs agreement with Glencore

 

Roskill View

AMG Vanadium is a secondary producer of vanadium and specialises in the conversion of oil refinery and power plant waste products into ferrovanadium, nickel and molybdenum at its plant in Cambridge, Ohio, USA. The company has long-term, multi-year agreements to process and recycle spent catalysts from major oil refineries.

 

Roskill believes that secondary vanadium production is set to increase in future as crude oil sulphur content (3.5%) will need to be reduced. Presumably in consideration of this fact, AMG has completed a feasibility study to replicate its existing recycling facility and approved the commencement of engineering work for a twin facility which, once completed, will more than double its spent catalyst processing capability. Subject to permitting, construction is expected to commence mid-2019 with a completion date in early 2021, resulting in over 31,750t of incremental spent catalyst processing capacity and over 6Mlb of incremental ferrovanadium production capacity (2,180tpy V).

 

News of Glencoreâââہ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¢s offtake comes after the August 20th announcement that Largo Resources had formally given notice to Glencore of the non-renewal of its off-take agreement dated May 2008. The off-take agreement will expire effective April 30th, 2020. Thus, the AMG deal guarantees Glencore some additional future material aside from that produced at its Rhovan operation in South Africa.

https://roskill.com/news/vanadium-amg-signs...-with-glencore/

 

Vanadium Outlook to 2028, 17th Edition - https://roskill.com/market-report/vanadium/

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