Jump to content

BATTERIES


blacksheep
 Share

Recommended Posts

The latest recipient of funding from the Commonwealth government's Cooperative Research Centre Projects initiative - http://minister.industry.gov.au/node/1474 - private company Printed Energy - perhaps they have plans to become publicly listed in the future?

 

Flexible printed batteries used in applications ranging from skin treatment patches to parcel tracking could be on the market within three years under a project backed by high-profile coal champions Trevor St Baker and Brian Flannery.

 

The $11 million project by Printed Energy, owned equally by the St Baker Energy Innovation Fund and Mr Flannery's family company Ganra Pty, has won $2 million of funding from the Commonwealth government's Cooperative Research Centre Projects initiative.

 

The funds will advance work with the aim of the first printed battery products, most likely in the healthcare sector, reaching the market in three years time, said Printed Energy chief executive Rodger Whitby.

 

The technology enables ultra-thin batteries to be printed on a newspaper roll-like printer in high volumes, allowing the micro storage devices to be integrated with other printed electronic devices during the manufacturing process. The batteries are printed using successive layers of electronic ink, most likely onto a plastic - rather than paper - film.

 

While most processes in the emerging printed battery sector use lithium-based polymer chemistry, Printed stands out by using cheaper, zinc-manganese technology, which also avoids any toxicity issues, Mr Rodger noted.

 

 

 

Read more: http://www.afr.com/technology/coal-barons-...w#ixzz4lAyqqVV8

 

http://stbenergy.com.au/#!/team

 

http://printedenergy.com.au/#!/about

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • Replies 724
  • Created
  • Last Reply

Top Posters In This Topic

Top Posters In This Topic

Posted Images

The Coming Battery Bonanza

Source: James Dines of The Dines Letter for Streetwise Reports

June 27, 2017 (Investorideas.com Newswire) James Dines, author of The Dines Letter, discusses the importance of graphite in the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries and highlights one graphite company he expects to have an edge.

 

Lithium Batteries for Autos and Home Storage

 

Someday, as sneaky years whisper past, batteries will be seen to have been a crucial wave of the investing future. Uses for lithium ion batteries (LIB) are expanding and will be the main technology for mobility and stationary storage for many years to come. LIB's have been improved over the last 25 years, but it might take that long for any new battery design to pass through the development process to ensure they are safe for consumer use. Electrification of vehicles and the storage of green energy is driving massive growth in LIB cell manufacturing, forecast to increase 170% from today's current capacity of 103 GwH to 278 GwH by 2021 to meet the demands of electrification of automotive vehicles. Also, lithium batteries will be used for stationary storage in houses; they would charge with wind or sunlight present, to be consumed later. Many will buy rooftop solar along with batteries. The 2015 world market value of lithium ion batteries was $18 billion and is forecast to double to $36 billion by 2025ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂwhich we personally believe will be much larger.

 

Auto sales in the US and Europe exceed 30 million and forecasts are that 20% of cars sold will be electric vehicles by 2025. This would require over 350 GwH produced a year by battery. By 2030 the annual sales of electric vehicles could be around 21 million, with an estimated 70-80-million electric vehicles on the road worldwide. Incidentally, China's goal is to have 5-million electric cars by 2020, with each electric vehicle also needing around three times more copper than a regular car. China expects to need 50,000 tons more copper annually for these electric vehicles. Copper's recent prices are now flat, and are at a critical juncture related to its trendlines.

 

There are over a half-dozen battery Gigafactories being considered in the US, and a further half-dozen in Europe, far in excess of current capacity. Tesla has built a plant with a 35 GwH capacity, intending to grow it to 150 GwH, while Northvolt is planning a gigaplant in Sweden. This will not be enough to match demand in Europe and America, so a further 50-100 GwH will be required on both sides of the Atlantic.

 

Stationary energy storage the likes of which are already taking shape by way of Tesla's Powerwall, and Mercedes' recent announcement of partnership with Vivint Solar, will provide home owners with the option to capture and store their solar energy and use it when wanted. These storage banks will be between 2.5 to 20 KwH and be incorporated into solar collection panels or shingles on roofs. This would create even larger demand for their components, as homeowner's transition to some level of independence from the electric grid. Utility providers will also push for this transformation as it would reduce their aging infrastructure costs significantly by managing peak loads with in-home storage. Comparable industrial uses for solar storage are almost limitless.

 

The Dines Letter has long expected raw materials' demand from the growing battery market to be significant. Key materials are lithium, graphite, cobalt, nickel, copper, silicon and aluminium. Lithium, cobalt and graphite are commodities that will come under especially sustained buying pressure. The majority is aware of lithium and cobalt, but many overlook very high-purity graphite, mistakenly regarding it as ordinary carbonÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂbut which is crucial for the security of long-lasting power for distance travel in electric vehicles. Graphite will surely always be a part of the lithium ion battery. How much will be synthetic versus natural is the real debate.

 

At present the average dollar value of graphite in a Tesla 85Kw battery pack is around US$1,250 (50kg) broken down into $1,200 synthetic (40kg) and $50 natural (10kg) graphite. The cost of synthetic graphite is about $30k per ton. Natural graphite's cost is closer to $10k per ton. The ability to reduce the raw-material cost in a Tesla battery pack is perhaps $500 per vehicle. It might not seem like a big savings, but when considering the almost 50-million new vehicles a year at a targeted 20% EV uptake, it equates to around $5 billion. Also noteworthy is that the same Tesla battery pack has $66 of lithium, $851 of cobalt and $146 of nickel (NMC Battery).

 

Graphite's demand for 100 GwH will be (round numbers) 600,000 tons, with approximately 400,000 tons of synthetic and 200,000 tons of high-purity natural graphite. In a drive to reduce these input costs, more and more of this graphite will be "natural flake graphite," if only because it is cheaper.

 

Who might supply this graphite? No surprise, China controls battery-grade graphite, so automotive cell manufacturing is currently exclusive to Asia. For years, China has been quietly cornering the market for one element after another, over The Dines Letter's bitter objections. We have not made a dent in our government's awakening, but we will continue to firmly state the truth that not everything will always be available on the free market. China is rapaciously seeking a piratical, pernicious monopoly of elements, not controlled by US anti-monopoly laws, as are handicapped Americans. America is ruled by unsuspecting financial innocents in this regard.

 

As "The Original Rare Earth Bug," we fought tooth and nail to block China, but unfortunately we did not get enough support, and now China controls over 90% of the world's Rare Earths. Most politicians have no idea what those elements are used for, but might be shocked to discover we can't build a rocket or missile without them, which might be inconvenient during a war with China. Indeed, even as we go to press, Rare Earth producer Molycorp, a recommendation The Dines Letter sold at an 89% profit before it went bankrupt, is being auctioned off. Who is among the bidders? China! Again relentlessly taking over the market for elements, buying every such asset available, while America dozes.

 

As procurement of these commodities become tighter, buyers would respond, as usual, by throwing money at the problem. But what if China nonetheless refuses to sell? Declaring these elements not for sale would be a bitter pill for America to swallow. Who would be blamed? At least weÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂand hopefully our subscribersÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂdid our best to warn about a historic change in free-enterprise capitalism.

 

A key to the bull market in graphite is that many now depend on China for use in automotive batteries. China cut off Japan's supply of Rare Earths when a conflict arose over the Senkaku boat collision on 7 Sep 2010, which would have closed down Japan's automobile industry. Tesla, for example, would have to close down its Gigafactory without China's graphite, and is thus likewise at its mercy. Furthermore, Europe also needs its own graphite, independent of China, and Leading Edge Materials(LEM), is an often overlooked source, dependably within the EU. According to an EU study, as of 2016, Norway is Europe's next distant source, but accounting for only 9% of current supply. We will return to LEM below.

 

There are many other junior resource exploration companies with such carbon assets: in America, Mozambique, Sweden, Australia, Madagascar, and more. The majority of these junior resource companies usually have only an undeveloped property, with a small number of drill holes; they would need substantial investment capital and expertise to produce even a low-purity graphite, let alone the high-purity graphite required for the electric-vehicle battery market.

 

http://www.investorideas.com/news/2017/ene...6271Battery.asp

Link to comment
Share on other sites

 

BASF and Norilsk Nickel enter exclusive negotiations to cooperate on raw material supply for battery materials production in Europe

 

Cooperation to set foundation to supply battery cell producers for electric vehicles in Europe with regionally produced cathode materials

 

Ludwigshafen, Germany, and Moscow, Russia, June 27, 2017 ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâ€Â¦ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬Å“ BASF and PJSC MMC Norilsk Nickel (Nornickel) announced today that they have signed a Memorandum of Understanding and entered exclusive negotiations to cooperate on the supply of raw materials for future battery materials production for lithium-ion batteries in Europe. BASF intends to invest up to ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬Ãƒâ€Â¦ÃƒÆ’‚¡ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬400 million in a first step to build industry-leading production plants for cathode materials in Europe. Through the prospective agreement, BASF would receive the raw materials from the Nornickel metal refinery in Harjavalta, Finland. Nornickel would also provide a secure supply of nickel and cobalt feedstock from its Russian mines at market prices. Along with its leading raw materials position, Nornickel also brings significant metals refining and trading experience to the cooperation.

 

see link for full details - https://www.basf.com/en/company/news-and-me...6/p-17-262.html

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Nano One has completed construction on its pilot plant, and results have far exceeded expectation. For those that donÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t yet know, Nano One is about to change the lithium space completely with the patented ability to chemically manufacture cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries that last more than twice as long as products currently on the market and at considerably lower cost.

 

The pilot results announced on 26th June reveal that lithium ion cathode materials that meet Nano OneÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s processing and battery capacity targets has been demonstrated at a scale of 100-times that of laboratory production. Proof-of-concept is now in the bag, and we can look forward to a rapid advance from these modern pioneers.

 

Hype surrounding electric vehicles has driven lithium prices up by three times what they were only 15 years ago, and the market is currently expressing a great need for lithium hydroxide supply (the form required for current cathode technologies), leading juniors all over the world to scramble to produce the value-added material.

 

Nano One have sidestepped the commotion with their chemical assembly process which makes it perfectly feasible to create a stronger and more powerful cathode from lithium carbonate. Similar methods are used in research, and in industries in which only small volumes are required, but, generally, these are too costly, complex and impractical for the high-volume production required for batteries.The vast majority of todayÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s industry uses a mechanical technique to process raw materials into fine powders over many stages, sometimes in the presence of aggressive chemicals, high heat and pressure. For batteries, this impacts the structural integrity of the material, which in turn severely reduces the quality of the end product.

 

Nano OneÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s technology differs from existing methods because it enables the quick assembly of inexpensive raw materials at mild temperatures under atmospheric pressures using simple and scalable equipment. The fact that the process removes the need for cobalt is not only a significant cost-saver, but will send a sizeable ripple through the tech-metals market. The ramifications of this technology are far reaching to say the least, and IÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢m expecting the company to be disrupting a number of sectors in the coming years.

 

s.https://investorintel.com/sectors/technology/technology-intel/nano-one-change-lithium-space/

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Explorers unearth new confidence as spending, raisings rise

The Australian12:00AM June 29, 2017

 

 

Battery-related commodities accounted for 50 per cent of the funds raised through IPOs, BDO said.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“There is definitely a focus on the battery minerals like lithium, cobalt and graphite, but most of the other commodities are performing better too,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ Mr Andrews said.

 

http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/m...d2219b6fc59aa66

Link to comment
Share on other sites

10 Battery Gigafactories Are Now in the Works. And Elon Musk May Add 4 More

 

Could a gigafactory glut lead to oversupply?

 

by Jason Deign

June 29, 2017

 

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/rea...-may-add-4-more

 

Gigafactory announcements have been trending in recent months, with plans for at least 10 new plants revealed in the last six months. Half a dozen have been planned in the last month alone.

 

In Germany, for example, the Daimler subsidiary Accumotive laid the foundation for a $550 million plant designed to take annual lithium-ion battery production from its current level of 80,000 units up to around 320,000.

 

And Energy Absolute, of Thailand, reportedly has plans for a $2.9 billion factory in Asia, with an annual production capacity of 1 gigawatt-hour per year, scaling to 50 gigawatt-hours a year by 2020.

 

Meanwhile, a consortium including Boston Energy and Innovation (BEI), Charge CCCV, C&D Assembly, Primet Precision Materials and Magnis Resources confirmed it will build a 15-gigawatt-hour-a-year plant on IBMÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s former Huron Campus manufacturing site in New York.

 

BEI, Charge CCCV, C&D Assembly and Magnis Resources are also working with Eastman Kodak Group to build a similarly sized plant near Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The backers have said the plant could create around 7,000 jobs.

 

More recently a company called Energy Renaissance has lifted the lid on plans for a factory in Darwin, in AustraliaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Northern Territory, with a production capacity of a gigawatt-hour of batteries a year.

 

The most aggressive gigafactory plans, however, remain with the company that came up with the concept. TeslaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s Elon Musk has said he will announce ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“probably fourÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ new gigafactories this year. One has long been slated for Europe, and another has been confirmed to be in the works in Shanghai, China.

 

The recent announcements follow at least five gigafactory proposals put forward for Europe before the end of last year, including facilities in Sweden, Hungary and Poland. Not all the new plants will focus on lithium-ion batteries, though.

 

The U.S. lead-acid battery maker Johnson Controls, for example, unveiled proposals for two Chinese plants with a combined annual capacity of 13.5 million batteries.

 

The company already has production capacity for 16 million batteries a year, from a factory in Chongqing and one in Zhejiang, and is looking invest $250 million in a new plant that could produce up to 7.5 million units a year in Shandong from 2019.

 

A second plant would follow in 2020. The increased capacity is aimed at satisfying growing demand from the start-stop engine market.

 

Overall, Bloomberg reports that global battery-making capacity is set to more than double by 2021, topping 278 gigawatt-hours a year compared to 103 gigawatt-hours at present.

 

The massive planned increase in battery production feels similar to the Chinese manufacturing boom that radically altered the PV landscape around a decade ago, by creating oversupply that ultimately led to the demise of dozens of solar firms.

 

Could the same phenomenon be underway in battery manufacturing?

 

Probably not, say storage experts. The pricing declines won't be nearly as dramatic due to supply chain differences.

 

"Unlike PV, battery raw materials are rare metals that have to be mined and processed, so they will have constant supply-demand push-pull, minimizing risk of supply glut," said Ravi Manghani, director of GTM Research's storage practice.

 

"The industry is in the middle of a huge cost declines phase as manufacturers continue to bring large gigafactories on-line. While some individual vendors may see massive cost step-downs as facilities are activated or new generation products with superior density are launched, on a macro level, the declines are going to be much more gradual," said Manghani.

 

According to Logan Goldie-Scot, head of Bloomberg New Energy Finance's storage practice, the growth in production capacity is already considered in pricing forecasts.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“We're already factoring the ramp-up in production capacity and ongoing price decreases into our analysis,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ said Goldie-Scot. ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“I don't foresee a step-change reduction in price.ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂ

 

By 2030, BNEF expects battery pack prices to fall to $73 per kilowatt-hour, down from a volume-weighted average of $273 per kilowatt-hour in 2016.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“This is an average, though,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ he said. ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“We're already seeing pack prices below $200 per kilowatt-hour.ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂ

 

David Hart, director at E4tech, an international strategic consultancy focused on sustainable energy, said much of the upcoming capacity will be needed to satisfy forecast growth in vehicle electrification.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“Building gigafactories is a logical next step in creating a battery industry that's fit for the purpose of supplying vehicles,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ he said. ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“I don't think the rise in gigafactories will necessarily result in a price crash.ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂ

 

Even if the battery market is unlikely to face the same pressures as solar, it will still grapple with challenges of its own.

 

ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“Very importantly, it's not clear that the resource supply chains exist yet for all these factories,ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ Hart said. ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Â¦ÃƒƒÂ¢Ãƒ¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…âہ“Lithium and cobalt supply needs to be increased, and everyone is vying for supply

.ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚ÂÂ
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Could a gigafactory glut lead to oversupply?
If these are for cars, and the distance able to travel before battery recharge is 400 miles (under 650km), then YES. Of course, there may be improvements in discharge efficiency, recharge times and the like, but then that would involve retooling/ reconfiguring?
Link to comment
Share on other sites

More importantly than over supply, where is the proprietary technology going to come from and how much will the battery designs cost, and when that is decided where are the rare earths and

materials going to come from? A lot of hot air being floated at the moment but no doubt it will happen in some form or other.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Some interesting developments in China - the introduction of Environmental Tax to be implemented in January 2018, which could impact on graphite.....

 

As the wave of anti-pollution controls continues across China and the central government in Beijing is pressing ahead with more environmental reforms, many warn that stricter regulation will push minerals production cost higher, ending the era of cheap Chinese products.

 

The new environmental tax law to be implemented in January 2018 is set to raise industrial mineralsÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ production cost in China, as the government is tightening regulation on industrial emissions.

 

The Chinese government passed the "environmental protection tax law" on 25 December 2016 and the new regulation will be in placed by 1 January 2018. On 26 June, ChinaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s state administration of taxation (SAT) published the draft bill listing a series of guidelines. The authority is calling for market feedback before a 26 July deadline.

 

Unlike previous environmental legislation, Beijing is committed to enforce this new law as Chinese president, Xi Jinping, has declared cleaning up the environment as the top priority for the country. Furthermore, the wave of anti-pollution crackdown, which started in mid-2016 in Shanxi and Henan, has since spread to other regions including Liaoning, Guizhou, Hunan, Shandong and Xinjiang.

 

As a result of the strict environmental inspections, many minerals productions were shut down over different periods: calcined bauxite, brown and white fused alumina, magnesia, fluorspar, barytes, antimony trioxide and calcium carbonate were all affected, while graphite is also expected to be impacted over the coming weeks.

 

China is the biggest producer of industrial minerals globally and the production stoppages caused severe supply disruptions worldwide. Even many downstream chemicals industries in China have been hit: hydrofluoric acid and aluminium trifluoride production were slashed, while restrictions on chromium chemicals producers have dampened ChinaÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s demand for chromite.

 

This recent trend was in stark contrast to the past decades where many minerals producers have been mining and producing with little concern for the environmental impact. Lack of regulation on waste management and emissions meant that many Chinese producers were able to offer low-cost minerals for export, as they did not have to invest in expensive, modern equipment for environmentally-friendly waste treatment and disposal.

 

However, the new stance from Beijing signified that the era of low-cost minerals production could be over as the government is keen on upgrading the manufacturing industry and accelerating green development in China.

 

Despite the anti-pollution measures across China show no sign of receding, some market participants believed the clampdown would be temporary, production would resume in the short-term and prices would fall as a result of operations returning to normal.

 

"Lots of customers believe prices will go down and that this is a short-term problem in China. My gut feeling is they will not go down and, if they do, it will be by a very small amount," one Europe-based minerals distributor told IM.

 

"Xi Jinping, heÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢s not mucking about [ÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’â€Å¡Ãƒƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¦] Normal rule doesnÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢t apply in China at the moment. The reality is, this is not a little blitz, this is a structural change," he said.

 

Implementation

 

Under the environmental law, all manufacturers must comply with the thresholds on emission and waste disposal and they will be taxed accordingly based on the volume of pollutants discharged.

 

This new law is set to limit the amount of emissions and waste generated from the manufacturing industry in China, since all forms of waste will be taxable from 2018 onward. It is hoped the measure will push companies to upgrade facilities and phase out polluting industries.

 

The draft regulations detailed a number of articles, which regulate and set guidelines for emissions and waste generation, storage and disposal.

 

Under the new rules on taxable solid waste, the volume of solid waste generated from production will be regulated based on a formula considering a number of criteria: the amount of waste created and its utilisation, treatment, storage and disposal.

 

In addition, daily average emissions of taxable pollutants must not exceed the set national and local government thresholds, while waste disposal permit holders cannot exceed their monthly discharge quota.

 

In order to collect the taxes, the SAT and the ministry of environmental protection will establish a common platform and system to monitor the pollution level in the country and its related tax revenue.

 

All producers must declare detailed information on the type and volume of emissions and waste, the method of disposal, storage and utilisation, and the supporting documents.

 

Although some welcomed this new law as it could potentially consolidate the mineralsÃÆâ€â„¢ÃƒÆ’ƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¡Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¬ÃƒÆ’¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã…¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬ÃƒÆ’…¾Ãƒâہ¡ÃƒÆ’‚¢ industry in China, others worried that stringent regulation could hike operation cost and place undue pressure on companies.

 

"The production cost will rise by a couple of hundreds renminbi, and it will eliminate some companies," said one fused alumina producer in Henan. "But the burden on enterprises will be huge."

 

http://www.indmin.com/Article/3729524/Envi...e-minerals.html

 

 

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
 Share


×
×
  • Create New...